When we are decorating a house, we usually need to make a renovation budget list to let you understand where your renovation costs are spent and avoid unnecessary overspending. Then we can reasonably plan our renovation budget. So what is included in the decoration budget list , the following article will introduce you to the cost of each item of the decoration budget list.
What is included in the decoration budget list: design fee
The design fee is usually charged per square meter. Some free design launched by decoration companies mainly refer to the design plan. The subsequent 3D renderings are still the same. There are certain fees for different decoration companies. Usually only after you choose this decoration company, 3D renderings will be produced for you.
What is included in the decoration budget list: management fee
The management fee usually refers to the construction management fee, which mainly includes the construction personnel's salary, travel expenses, tooling equipment usage fee, etc. The management fee refers to the decoration company's usual expenses for workers and materials during the decoration, usually about 10% of the decoration cost.
What is included in the decoration budget list: basic construction costs
The basic construction cost is also the labor cost, which is usually about 30% of the decoration cost. This part of the decoration cost usually includes auxiliary materials. The construction cost is usually quoted according to the building area of â€‹â€‹the house.
What is included in the renovation budget list: hydropower renovation
Hydropower transformation is usually a relatively expensive place, but it is also a place where it is easy to get bored. Therefore, hydropower projects are hidden projects that need to be buried in the wall, and it is difficult to control the price comparison.
What is included in the decoration budget list: hard material
The hard-mounted main material is the key part of our house decoration, mainly including cabinets, suspended ceilings, sanitary ware, ceramic tiles, floors and other products. Without these main materials, our houses cannot stay normally. The quality of the main materials is different from the brand and the price will be somewhat difference.
What is included in the decoration budget list: furniture costs
Furniture expenses also account for a very high proportion in the decoration. The main planers include beds, TV cabinets, sofas, coffee tables, bookcases, etc. We can choose to buy custom furniture or finished furniture.
Summary of the article: The above is the relevant introduction about the decoration budget list , I hope to provide you with some help in the decoration of the house, let everyone understand your every decoration cost, and make our decoration cost more reasonable and clear.
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Alnico Magnets are traditionally classified using numbers assigned by the Magnetic Materials Producers Association (MMPA), for example, Alnico 3 or Alnico 5.
Alnico magnets are produced by casting or sintering processes. Anisotropic alnico magnets are oriented by heating above a critical temperature and cooling in the presence of a magnetic field. Both isotropic and anisotropic alnico require proper heat treatment to develop optimal magnetic properties-without it alnico's coercivity is about 10 Oe, comparable to technical iron, which is a soft magnetic material. After the heat treatment alnico becomes a composite material, named "precipitation material"-it consists of iron- and cobalt-rich precipitates in rich-NiAl matrix.
Alnico's anisotropy is oriented along the desired magnetic axis by applying an external magnetic field to it during the precipitate particle nucleation, which occurs when cooling from 900 Â°C (1,650 Â°F) to 800 Â°C (1,470 Â°F), near the Curie point. Without an external field there are local anisotropies of different orientations due to spontaneous magnetization. The precipitate structure is a "barrier" against magnetization changes, as it prefers few magnetization states requiring much energy to get the material into any intermediate state. Also, a weak magnetic field shifts the magnetization of the matrix phase only and is reversible.
Alnico magnets are ideal for high temperature applications up to 550ÂºC
. Cast Alnico Magnet is very stable, has good corrosion resistance and a typical hardness of 50 Rockwell C. Once cast, the material is so hard that the only machining possible is grinding
. Cast Alnico Magnet represents the most versatile magnet material available. The range of properties can be accurately designed for specific applications by changes to element analysis and heat treatment.
Cast Alnico Magnet
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