The hoisting machinery lifts or lifts and lifts the weight by means of a lifting hook or other pick-up device. The working process of the lifting machine generally includes steps of lifting, running, lowering and returning to the original position. The hoisting mechanism lifts the heavy object from the picking point by the taking device, shifts the weight through the running, turning or luffing mechanism, and returns the weight to the original position after placing the heavy object at the designated place.
The drive unit is used to drive the power unit of the working mechanism. Common drive devices include electric drives, internal combustion engine drives, and manual drives. Electrical energy is a clean, economical energy source. Electric drive is the main driving type of modern cranes. Almost all rail cranes, elevators, elevators, etc. that operate within a limited range are electrically driven. For mobile cranes that can be moved over long distances (such as truck cranes, tire cranes and crawler cranes), internal combustion engine drives are often used. The human drive is suitable for some light and small lifting equipment, and is also used as a temporary power for auxiliary, backup drive and accident (or accident status) of certain equipment.
Working institutions include: hoisting mechanism, operating mechanism, luffing mechanism and rotating mechanism, which are called the four major institutions of cranes.
(1) The hoisting mechanism is a mechanism for realizing vertical lifting of materials, and is any crane
The indispensable part of the gantry crane is the most important and basic mechanism of the crane.
(2) The operating mechanism is a mechanism for realizing material handling by crane or lifting trolley. It has the functions of trackless operation and rail operation. It is divided into two types according to its driving mode: self-propelled and traction.
(3) The luffing mechanism is a unique working mechanism of the boom crane. The luffing mechanism changes the working range by changing the length and elevation of the boom.
(4) The rotating mechanism is to make the boom rotate around the vertical axis of the crane to transport the material in the annular space. The crane achieves the purpose of carrying materials by a single movement of a mechanism or a combination of multiple mechanisms.
The picking device is a device for lifting materials by lifting, grasping, sucking, clamping, supporting or other means to connect the materials with the crane. Different types of material picking devices are used depending on the type, shape and volume of the materials to be suspended. For example, the articles are commonly used as hooks and rings; bulk materials (such as grain, ore, etc.) are commonly used for grabs and hoppers; liquid materials are used for tanks and tanks. There are also special spreaders for special materials, such as lifting overhead monorail system beams for lifting long materials, lifting electromagnetic suction cups for lifting magnetic materials, rotating hooks for metallurgical and other departments, and screw unloading. And the pick-up device such as the bucket wheel unloading, and the special spreader for the container. A suitable pick-up device can reduce the labor intensity of the operator and greatly improve work efficiency. Preventing the falling objects from falling, ensuring the safety of the workers and the damage of the hanging objects are the basic requirements for the safety of the picking device.
The metal structure is made of a metal material rolled steel (such as angle steel, channel steel, I-beam, steel pipe, etc.) and steel plate as basic components. It is connected by a certain composition rule by welding, riveting, bolting, etc., and is subjected to cranes. Self-weight and load steel structure. The weight of the metal structure accounts for about 40% to 70% of the weight of the whole machine, and the heavy crane can reach 90%; the cost is about 30% of the cost of the whole machine. The metal structure can be divided into solid type (made of steel plate, also called box structure) and lattice type (usually made of steel, common with root frame and lattice column) according to its structure, which constitutes crane metal. The basic force-bearing member of the structure. These basic force-receiving members have columns (axial force-receiving members), beams (bending members), and booms (bending members), and various combinations of various members form cranes having different functions. The complex force, self-importance, consumables and overall mobility are the working characteristics of the crane metal structure.
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