Although some enterprises with weak innovation capabilities have survived the 2008 financial crisis, they have lost hopes in the future, which has caused them not only to expand their investment aspirations, but also to shut down and sell them. The â€œwarm water boiled frogsâ€ are passively completed; In the market, but the enterprises with insufficient development stamina, the state of â€œnot doing big, not dyingâ€ makes them wait for opportunities in the state of â€œmixing and seeingâ€ in the state of difficulty in financing and labor, and some small and micro Enterprises are in the â€œplatform periodâ€ and â€œenergy storage periodâ€ of technological innovation, and â€œpoor breathâ€ can achieve leap-forward development.
It is difficult to recruit workers
With the adjustment of industrial structure and the pursuit of â€œdecent employmentâ€ by migrant workers themselves, some enterprises in Shanghai, especially labor-intensive enterprises, have experienced seasonal and structural recruitment difficulties. Many companies are worried that this period of labor shortage will exist for a long time in the future.
A vice president of a home appliance chain told the Economic Information Daily that the minimum wage in Shanghai last year was 1,450 yuan / month, and will continue to increase this year. The company's labor costs in Shanghai account for 4% of operating costs, which is more than 30% higher than the company's average national labor costs. Although the company's salary to employees is far higher than the minimum wage, but the standard is raised, employees still require a raise.
"Now many companies are paying the basic salary + commission or piece-rate, which can motivate employees to work harder, but if the after-tax income does not exceed 3,000 yuan / month, the company can not stay at the grassroots sales staff." He said.
According to Li Wei, general manager of Kangte Technology, the high cost of employment is a common feeling for enterprises. For the IT industry, employees pay a monthly salary of 5,000 yuan is not high, but with the "four insurance and one gold" and a tax, the company actually pays more than 9,000 yuan, which is about doubled. For entrepreneurial companies, labor costs are still a large expense. In addition, due to the high cost of living in Shanghai, especially the pressure on young people to buy a house, some monthly mortgages are five or six thousand yuan, and it is difficult to retain employees if the company's salary is not competitive.
Han Rong, vice president of a well-known brand clothing company in Shanghai, said that due to the sharp decline in the company's earnings in the past three years, the wages of workers have not increased. The â€œfour insurances and one goldâ€ and individual taxes accounted for 46.6% of the company's labor costs. The average monthly salary per person increased by 100 yuan. The company has more than 2,000 employees, and the monthly labor cost has increased by nearly 300,000 yuan. "The company's annual net profit is only seven or eight million yuan. How can we dare to raise wages?"
According to a survey conducted by the Shanghai Federation of Industry and Commerce, it is already difficult to recruit after the Spring Festival. In particular, the gap between professional and technical personnel and front-line operators is the biggest, and some even affect the normal operation of enterprises. From the employment gap industry, it is difficult to recruit workers in industries such as electronics, machinery, logistics, medicine, and light industry. Labor is associated with labor, labor costs account for a relatively high proportion of total cost of small and micro enterprises, with the increase in minimum wages and social security expenditures, labor costs continue to grow. According to the survey, 85.2% of the wages and expenditures in 2012 accounted for 85.2% (of which 36.1% were considered to have risen significantly, 49.1% were increased), and 13.4% of wages were basically stable. 1.5%.
Tax burden is difficult to finance
Increasing fiscal and taxation financial support is the current expectation of small and medium-sized enterprises, including the expectation of directly benefiting from the structural tax reduction policy, substantially raising the income tax threshold, accelerating the pace of business tax expansion, and demanding long-term tax incentives for small and micro enterprises. To reduce the social insurance premium rate of small and micro enterprises and to cancel unreasonable administrative fees.
"Before 2010, the company's net profit was still tens of millions of yuan, but in the past two years, the profit of the physical store was very poor, only three or four million yuan, plus the online mall profit of three or four million yuan, the net profit is only the past five points. One." Han Rong said that even so, the company still pays tens of millions of yuan a year, ranking among the top 50 taxpayers in Yangpu District.
Members of the Changning District CPPCC Chamber of Commerce and Industry conducted a questionnaire survey of 100 small and medium-sized enterprises in the region before the Spring Festival. It was found that 85.6% of enterprises believe that the current national tax rate is high (22.6% of them are considered to be high, and 63% are considered high). ). At the same time, 67.5% of enterprises believe that the government's tax reduction and exemption policy can promote the development of enterprises.
â€œSome business owners report that if all kinds of hidden and explicit taxes are added together, the average tax burden of enterprises is above 40%.â€ Ning Sheng, deputy of the National Peopleâ€™s Congress and vice chairman of the Democratic National Construction Association, said that small businesses need to pay income tax. More than 20 kinds of taxes, such as value-added tax, business tax, turnover tax, stamp duty and deed tax.
In addition to the â€œtax burdenâ€, â€œfunding difficultiesâ€ are the most concentrated, most concentrated, most vocal, and most contradictory issues for small and medium-sized enterprises. According to statistics, at present, more than 90% of Shanghai's SMEs rely on bank loans, while commercial banks are less than 20% of their total loans. Especially for small and micro enterprises, financing credit is small, channels are small, and costs are high. Bank loans are difficult to obtain. The interest rates of financing institutions outside banks are generally higher than banks. In general, small and micro enterprises are unbearable.
Fu Wei told the Economic Information Daily that if there is no collateral, it is difficult for small and micro enterprises to borrow from banks, and the cost of financing through guarantee companies must at least double. "The interest rate is higher than the bank, and the guarantee fee is also paid. Calculated the financing cost is above 10%."
According to the Shanghai Federation of Industry and Commerce, the comprehensive financing cost of small and micro enterprises is generally above 10%, and the comprehensive cost of private micro loans is as high as 22%. In addition, the short-term long-term investment phenomenon of small and micro enterprises is prominent, which further increases operational risks.
According to the person in charge of a cigarette machine accessories company in Anhui, the rising cost of financing is a more terrible â€œshackleâ€ than the labor cost. Private lending has climbed from one point to three points and four points in 2012. Many of the peers are not able to change careers. "Which industry can have such high profits? The money earned is given to small loan companies."
Standard Chartered Bank's â€œChina SME Confidence Indexâ€ shows that in the fourth quarter of 2012, the financing costs of SMEs increased slightly, and the bank's credit limit and risk control requirements increased, and the willingness to lend to SMEs declined. The satisfaction of the company's financing of the bank has declined after the first five months of improvement. Among them, the interest rate of bank loans of small and medium-sized enterprises is more obvious, and the proportion of enterprises that are floating up has risen from 22.7% in the first quarter of last year to 44.6% in the fourth quarter.
Compared with most enterprises that have encountered development difficulties or encountered â€œceilingsâ€, some small and micro enterprises are in the â€œplatform periodâ€ and â€œenergy storage periodâ€ of technological innovation, and â€œsuffocatingâ€ can achieve leapfrog development. .
Shanghai Margolongte Bone China Co., Ltd. is a traditional manufacturing enterprise, mainly producing high-grade bone china tableware and gift porcelain. Compared with other peers who are still sighing for business difficulties, Margotonâ€™s life is much better. Last yearâ€™s sales exceeded 70 million yuan and the gross profit margin reached 60% to 70%.
Zhao Chunyang, chairman of the company, said that the price of bone china tableware exported by domestic companies to Europe and the United States is 1 to 2 US dollars, while the products of Margolon bone can be sold for 7 dollars. "Because we have our own brand and first-class designers, The quality is comparable to the high-end products in Europe and America."
However, due to funding and channel constraints, Margo Longte also entered the bottleneck period. Zhao Chunyang said that the company has been established for 13 years, and its annual profit has almost all been invested in design and R&D innovation. In 2008, it even set up a design studio in Paris. When the international financial crisis spread, â€œbargainsâ€ absorbed a group of outstanding European designers. The company's "Blue Flower Banquet" was once selected as the national ceremony of the 2010 Shanghai World Expo. â€œThe company is strong enough, but there is no more money to do branding and channel building.â€
Shanghai Zeyang Information Technology Co., Ltd. is a small and micro enterprise with only 107 employees. Last year, it defeated 7 foreign companies and 11 domestic listed companies, and became the national smart community solution provider of Lujiazui. Currently only 500 in the world. There are 15 strong customers. But the founder of the company, Zhang Yuangang, said that because of the shortage of funds, the company also encountered bottlenecks, and many projects were "more than enough." â€œWe spent a year last year, borrowing only 1 million yuan from the Bank of China through IP mortgages, and getting a glass of water.â€
Fu Xinhua, deputy director of the Shanghai Municipal Committee of Economics and Information Technology, said that some enterprises "can fly in the air" and are in the energy storage period. At this time, the government should help, but don't pull out the seedlings and learn from the lessons of the photovoltaic industry.
Wu Wen, director of the Shanghai Office for the Promotion of SME Development, said that SMEs do not have to be competitive, such as Shanghai Ruinian Fine Chemical Co., Ltd., which is a â€œhot pressure sensitive functional color changing couplerâ€ in Jinshan District. Small business, but only this company in the world produces this product, with full market pricing power. In the context of the decline in raw material prices last year, the products produced by Ruinian actually increased in price, with a net profit margin of 60%.
"Some small and medium-sized enterprises in Europe, although small in scale, are very strong in a certain professional field, so they live very well, and some have a history of hundreds of years. In contrast, many small and medium-sized enterprises in China are hard to be strong, that is, this is lacking. Specialized, precise, special, new DNA." Wu Wen said.
Market promotes transformation and upgrading
In response to the difficulties faced by small and medium-sized enterprises, in recent years, many experts and scholars have also launched "pharmaceuticals", one of which is to require enterprises to transform and upgrade, to adapt to market changes, "the iron has to be hard." However, in practice, most small and medium-sized enterprises have very limited funds, talents, technology, equipment, etc., and have a small proportion of innovative capabilities. Enterprises with key core technologies, independent intellectual property rights, and new product development are available. A smaller number.
The "Economic Information Daily" reporter found in the survey that more small, medium and small enterprises in the face of transformation and upgrading are lack of motivation, do not want to turn, the direction is not clear, the risk is too big to dare to turn, the support is not enough.
A survey by the Shanghai Changning District Political Consultative Conference on 100 small and medium-sized enterprises in the region shows that 70% of enterprises are hesitant about the transition and believe that the transformation will also face risks in the market, technology, capital, talents and industrial policies. The market expects that the domestic and international economic situation is unclear, and the trend remains to be seen. The companies that are optimistic or cautiously optimistic about the market outlook account for 31%. 43% of the companies said that it is difficult to judge the future situation, and 26% of the companies bring There is a certain pessimistic mood--mainly that the global economy has not yet stepped out of the bottom, domestic economic transformation, and regulatory policies are all uncertain factors, so the company itself is focused on preventing risks. Most optimistic companies have the ability to transform and develop, with new product development, core technologies and markets, and international market changes make companies more competitive.
Zhang Huiming, director of the Enterprise Research Institute of Fudan University, believes that this group of small and medium-sized enterprises has the characteristics of high elimination rate. It is normal for most enterprises to be small and not strong. Therefore, it is impossible to demand that all small and medium-sized enterprises have the ability to innovate and transform. It is hoped that through the help of the policy, immediate results will be achieved. In the process of industrial upgrading, we should emphasize the marketization of investment, let the market constrain the investment behavior of enterprises, and optimize the industrial structure through the market rules of survival of the fittest.
According to Wu Wen, about 550,000 small, medium and small enterprises in Shanghai are paying taxes normally. In recent years, more than 700 companies have died out in the past few years. In 2012, there were more than 900 companies. Many companies have also moved to neighboring cities such as Jiangsu Nantong, Changshu, Taicang, Kunshan and Zhejiang Jiaxing. For example, about one-third of the newly added enterprises in Changshu in the past two years are from Shanghai.
Fu Xinhua, deputy director of the Shanghai Economic and Information Technology Committee, believes that enterprises will encounter different difficulties at different stages. On the whole, about one quarter of small, medium and small enterprises will be eliminated, and one quarter of innovation will achieve leapfrog development. And one-half of the enterprises "shoucheng". Therefore, helping small and medium-sized enterprises to solve difficulties should also be divided into â€œGSPâ€ and targeted support. The former, such as reducing income tax, adopting low tax rate, lowering administrative fees and government administrative service costs, etc., the latter â€œSpecially newâ€ enterprises support â€œdeep fishingâ€ in policy and capital, leading enterprise innovation and helping enterprises to take off.
Information asymmetry needs to be eliminated
The Shanghai Federation of Industry and Commerce conducted a survey of small and micro enterprises last year. The results of the questionnaires from 378 companies showed that 73.1% of the respondents â€œdo not understand and understandâ€ the policies provided by the state to SMEs, and 62.7% of enterprises hope to obtain information. service.
Song Xiaohui, deputy director of the Shanghai Office for the Promotion of SME Development, told the Economic Information Daily that there are indeed such problems. For various reasons, small and medium-sized enterprises cannot learn or even pay attention to policies in a timely manner. In addition to timely publishing relevant information through the Internet, Shanghai also issued 120,000 copies of â€œSMEs for SMEsâ€ every month. At the same time, it also developed a mobile client program, which users can download for free to check the latest policies. "In the future, we hope to form a policy push for information promotion. When some enterprises achieve the preferential treatment of certain policies, they will actively push this information so that the preferential policies can bear fruit in the first time."
At the "two sessions" in Shanghai, some delegates and committee members thought that if they want to alleviate the difficulty of financing, and open up other methods, they can make a difference by simply "eliminating information asymmetry."
For example, the establishment of small and medium-sized micro-enterprise sample databases, collecting statistical resources bit by bit, form the basis and basis for understanding the dynamic operation of small and medium-sized enterprises, which is also a credit medical examination report of enterprises. The Shanghai Municipal Committee of the Revolutionary Committee of the People's Republic of China proposed that tax credits should be considered as collateral for financial credits, and bank loans should be exchanged for good tax credits. Banks and tax machines should be associated with tax credit records and financial accounting credit records for small and medium-sized enterprises. It is included in the financial enterprise credit information system, and it provides low-interest and high-value financial support for enterprises with higher tax credit ratings.
The relevant person in charge of the Shanghai Federation of Industry and Commerce believes that the application conditions for patents and qualifications should be appropriately relaxed or cancelled, so that the support policies can benefit more small and micro enterprises; the fund application procedure should be simple and easy to operate, and reduce the application cost of enterprises. Innovative support methods will directly provide financial support in combination with the government's purchase of services and the provision of loan interest subsidies. Support for start-up business loans, entrepreneurial venues, and recruiting staff.
The right medicine still needs "combination boxing"
In view of the current problems of high labor costs, heavy tax burdens, and difficulties in financing, some enterprises and experts suggest that the right medicine should be prescribed, and the short-term, medium- and long-term policies should be implemented in a two-pronged manner to effectively reduce the burden on enterprises and create a good environment for enterprise innovation and transformation.
First, it is recommended to implement a flexible employment system for small and micro enterprises. Experts suggest that, in the case of consensus between employers and employees, it is recommended to simplify the labor and employment procedures for small and micro enterprises, and allow flexible employment based on full respect for the will of workers, allowing micro-enterprise salaries to float within a certain range of minimum wage guidelines. .
Second, it is recommended to implement a light tax burden policy, gradually promote structural tax cuts, and speed up the design of more reasonable tax and fee preferential policies, such as quota collection and implementation of â€œthree exemptions and two reductionsâ€ for small and micro enterprise income tax. If it is spread out, it may be carried out in some areas and within a certain time limit to carry out pilot projects to effectively reduce its operational burden; increase the value-added tax and business tax threshold for small and micro enterprises, and accelerate the reform of the service industry's business tax to increase the value-added tax to more service industries. Wai.
The third is to guide banks to improve the financial innovation and service level of small and micro enterprises, encourage banks to establish different types of business units and professional management teams, increase innovation in risk prevention and control, and promote inventory, accounts receivable, and patent rights. Wait for movable property or equity pledge, reduce the threshold for small and micro enterprise loans, and reduce the financing costs of small and micro enterprises. At the same time, it will play a guiding role in the state-owned policy financing guarantee institutions. Under the premise of perfecting the system, standardizing procedures, and effective supervision, the organization is allowed to have a certain proportion of bad debts to make up for the externalities of the market in providing public goods for investment and financing of small and micro enterprises.
In addition, Wang Yan, deputy governor of the Bank of East Asia in Shanghai, suggested that different stages of development of small and micro enterprises should seek different sources of funding. They cannot rely solely on banks. In the long run, they cannot rely solely on government subsidies. For those companies with capital precipitation, they may wish to make more use of them, such as large-scale retail trade enterprises, which can play a role as a bank to provide financial support to suppliers.
The fourth is to accelerate the reform of the monopoly industry, accelerate the promotion of private capital into the fields of finance, energy, transportation and social undertakings, and break the "glass door" and "spring door" for the development of small and micro enterprises. Focusing on strategic industries, emerging industries and high-tech industries, we will publish key industry development catalogues and support policies, strengthen industry guidance, and promote the transformation and upgrading of small and micro industries. Set up a platform, organize a matchmaking meeting, help small and micro enterprises and large and medium-sized enterprises to establish procurement and distribution cooperation mechanisms to open up markets.
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